Things You Didn’t Know About D&D: Multiclass Spellcasting

I am constantly seeing confusion about how multiclassed spellcasting works, and I am constantly frustrated to see people who have no idea how it works offering up incorrect garbage as though it is incontrovertible fact. It’s about high time this was properly elaborated. 


Don’t forget to also check out our article Multiclassing Like A Pro, which offers helpful advice about multiclassing!


So, you have decided to multiclass. Congratulations! You have entered a whole new dimension of customizing your character, one with a long and storied history dating back many editions. Oh, and you’ve chosen to branch into a second spellcasting class? You’re in for some fun times, for sure!

Unfortunately, with more customization comes more rules, and some of the most complex rules are those surrounding how to handle multiclass spellcasting. In fact, it’s one of the most frequently misunderstood systems in the game, one that even veteran players get wrong.  Fortunately, you’ve come to the right place for help. Here are the points to remember.

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Spell Slots are Calculated and Shared Between All Spellcasting Classes

The Multiclass Spellcaster: Spell Slots per Spell Level table on page 165 of the Player’s Handbook gives you the total number of spell slots you have. The number is based on your total spellcaster level, which is calculated using the following steps taken from page 164:

  • Add together all your levels in the bard, cleric, druid, sorcerer, and wizard classes;
  • Add half your levels (rounded down) in the paladin and ranger classes; and
  • Add one third of your levels (rounded down) in the eldritch knight (fighter) or arcane trickster (rogue) classes

For example, if you are a 5th-level eldritch knight, a 7th-level arcane trickster, and a 2nd-level wizard, you count as a 5th-level multiclass spellcaster. If you are a 5th-level paladin and a 11th-level cleric, you count as a 13th-level multiclass spellcaster. If you are a 16th-level wizard and a 1st-level cleric, you count as a 17th-level multiclass spellcaster.

Note that warlock levels are not included above, as the Pact Magic feature functions differently (see below).

You Know And Prepare Spells Based On Each Class

This is the point where most people go wrong. According to page 164, when you are determining which spells you can learn or preparing a list of spells, you treat each class separately, completely ignoring the multiclass spellcasting section entirely. If you have one level of druid, it doesn’t matter how many other spellcasting levels you have, you prepare druid spells as though you were a 1st-level druid.

Note that this also means that, when you gain a level in a spellcasting class, you will also gain access to cantrips available to that class at that level. Only the spell slots you gain are shared between all spellcasting classes.

Each Spellcasting Class Has Its Own Spellcasting Ability

If you are a 1st-level wizard and a 1st-level cleric, you use Intelligence as your spellcasting ability for wizard spells and Wisdom as your spellcasting ability for cleric spells, as though you were a single-class spellcaster for each of those classes. You do not get to cast your wizard spells using your Wisdom as the spellcasting ability.

You Will Probably Get Higher Level Spell Slots Than You Have Spells

Say that you are a 4th-level druid who gains a level in cleric. According to the Multiclass Spellcaster: Spell Slots per Spell Level table on page 165 of the Player’s Handbook, you have access to 3rd-level spell slots. However, the Druid table on page 65 of the Player’s Handbook shows that a 4th-level druid does not have 3rd-level spell slots. Therefore, to prepare a spell like call lightning, the character would have to take another level of druid.

This does not mean that such a character cannot use their 3rd-level spell slot. Once they have prepared their spells, they can cast a prepared spell at a higher level following all the normal rules found on page 201 of the Player’s Handbook. For example, if they prepared the 1st-level druid spell cure wounds, they could cast it using their 3rd-level spell slot.

What’s the Deal with Warlocks?

Unlike other spellcasting classes, which have the Spellcasting class feature, warlocks have something called Pact Magic. You do not add your warlock level to your other levels when determining how many spell slots you have on the Multiclass Spellcaster table. Instead, the spell slots granted by Pact Magic are in addition to the ones granted by Spellcasting. What’s really cool about this is that you can use spell slots granted by Pact Magic to cast spells from another spellcasting class, and vice versa. Also, given that all of their spell slots are of the same level, and that level gets higher as you advance in warlock levels, taking some levels as a warlock can be a very appealing option for some multiclass characters.

Don’t Trust Everything You Read Online

One of the most wonderful things about this day and age is that people can communicate about confusing things quite easily. Of course, this also means that many people who think they know what they’re talking about get to put incorrect information into the public knowledge. For example, Mythcreants put out an article a while back claiming that a 17th-level wizard/1st-level cleric multiclassed spellcaster could prepare 9th-level cleric spells. Their fallacious explanation went as follows:

Page 164 of the mutliclassing rules states: “You determine what spells you know and can prepare for each class individually, as if you were a single classed member of that class.”

It then gives an example of wizard/ranger, neither of which prepares spells like a cleric does.

Back on page 54 of the cleric class rules, after explaining how you choose a list of cleric spells to be able to cast, the book reads “the spells must be of a level for which you have spell slots.”

Note that it does not say “cleric spell slots.”

Then back on page 164: “You determine your available spell slots by adding together all your levels of bard, cleric, druid, sorcerer, and wizard…”

So when you’re preparing your spells as a first level cleric, you can pick spells of any level for which you have slots, which in this case will be levels 1-9 because when you combine your class levels together, those are the slots available to you for casting.

Now, this honestly frustrates me. It frustrates me because the folks over at Mythcreants have demonstrated that they are clearly capable of reading, and yet it seems to me that they have consciously gone out of their way to display the least degree of reading comprehension imaginable. In their attempt to justify such egregious, shameful rule-breaking, they have completely and utterly disregarded the very first words in the Spells Known and Prepared subsection of the multiclassed spellcasting write-up, which I will quote again for emphasis:

You determine what spells you know and can prepare for each class individually, as if you were a single-classed member of that class.

The fact that they themselves quoted this makes it even worse, but I will endeavour to move on before I give myself an aneurysm.

Remember the example above with the 4th-level druid who had access to a 3rd-level spell slot due to their multiclassing choice, but couldn’t prepare 3rd-level druid spells? The exact same rules apply here. Just as the multiclassed druid counted only as a druid for the purpose of preparing druid spells, so does the cleric in the example the folks at Mythcreants have conceived. In other words: according to the rules on page 57 of the Player’s Handbook, that character can only prepare a number of 1st-level cleric spells equal to their Wisdom modifier + their cleric level. If they have a Wisdom score of 16, that means they can prepare four 1st-level cleric spells. I’ll say again: 1st-level cleric spells.

Now, once those spells have been prepared, they can be cast using any available spell slot, just like the druid in our earlier example could do. Given that the character has 17 levels of wizard, that means that the 1st-level cleric spell could be cast using a 9th-level spell slot. This is the only time the previously-accumulated higher-level spell slots have any bearing whatsoever on the way that the character casts their cleric spells.

So, unfortunately for those who subscribe to Mythcreant University’s Power Gaming 101 philosophy, their thesis is definitively incorrect. This is why it is important to read the rules carefully, and why you should never trust what you see on the internet (unless you see it here first, or it comes directly from the Mouth of God via Sage Advice).


FAQ

I am a wizard 5/rogue 2 and I level up rogue to get arcane trickster. What benefit do I gain?

Becoming an arcane trickster officially qualifies you as a multiclass spellcaster. From this point forward, you determine your daily spell slots using the Multiclass Spellcaster: Spell Slots per Spell Level table on page 164 of the Player’s Handbook, rather than using the tables in either the wizard or the rogue class entries. You still use these tables to determine how many spells and cantrips you know, the maximum level spell you can know and prepare, and for every other feature of your class.

I am a 4th-level wizard and I want to take my next level in cleric. Do I get to learn fireball because I have 3rd-level spell slots?

No. You determine the spells you know and can prepare independently for each class, as though you were only in that class. When determining the wizard spells you know and can prepare, you would count as a 4th-level wizard and therefore would not have 3rd-level spell slots (you only get those when you’ve reached 5th level in a spellcasting class).

But I would have 3rd-level spell slots?

Correct. This means that you could cast a spell like magic missile at 3rd level, but you still couldn’t cast 3rd-level spells like lightning bolt or animate dead. Think of it this way: someone studying to be a particle physicist decides to branch out and learn some rocket science. He probably became a better mathematician, but he’s no better at particle physics specifically as a result of his cross-discipline studies.

I’m a 16th-level cleric and I want to take a level in wizard. Can I learn and prepare wish

No. You determine what spells you know and can prepare for each class as though you were only that class. If you are a 1st-level wizard, you know six 1st-level wizard spells and cannot learn wizard spells above 1st level. If you find a spell scroll containing the wish spell, you could still attempt to cast it, but you would have to roll a spellcasting check as described in the Dungeon Master’s Guide.

I’m a sorcerer 5/warlock 2. How does this work?

Unlike sorcerers, wizards, clerics, etc., warlocks don’t have the Spellcasting feature and therefore do not count toward multiclass spellcasting. You determine the spells they know from their Spellcasting classes separately from the spells that they know from their Pact Magic feature. You can still use the spell slots gained from both features to cast spells from either class.

When I gain a new spellcasting class, do I also gain new cantrips?

If the new spellcasting class has cantrips, you gain new cantrips according to what is laid out in that class’ Spellcasting feature. You do not gain more cantrips in your existing spellcasting class. For example, a 9th-level wizard who gains a level in bard would learn two new bard cantrips. They would not learn another wizard cantrip because they are not a 10th-level wizard.


Some sources from the designers which support my explanations:

  1. Learning 3rd-level spells with a 2nd-level wizard.
  2. Copying vs. learning higher-level spells. (Note: the Player’s Handbook Errata later restricted copying spells into a wizard spellbook to spells that the wizard could prepare.)
  3. And last but not least, a Sage Advice that definitively supports my rebuttal to the folks at Mythcreants, who really need to revise or remove their misleading article.

26 thoughts on “Things You Didn’t Know About D&D: Multiclass Spellcasting”

  1. Hey, Oren from Mythcreants here. Thanks for posting a link to us!

    While I wouldn’t rate anything here as 1,000,000,000% wrong (though I’m flattered you thought my article rated a billion on any metric), I do think you’re reading Rules as Intended rather than Rules as Written when it comes to the Cleric multiclass spellcasting.

    The trick comes in the way the Cleric learns spells. That is, they don’t. Per page 58, Clerics effectively know their entire spell list, and are only limited by the spell slots their have available. Druids work this way too. Rangers and Wizards, on the other hand, have a limited number of known spells that they can choose from.

    Per page 164, you determine which spells you know and prepare for each class individually. So when my Wizard 17/Cleric 1 is preparing spells as first level Cleric, he knows every Cleric spell on the list. He need only expend spells lots of the appropriate level to cast them.

    Since my character does not have Wizard Slots and Cleric Slots, only their total Spell Slots from their combined class levels, they can prepare any spell from the Cleric list as a first level Cleric.

    I’m certain this isn’t what the 5E designers intended, but it is what they wrote. I’m not suggesting anyone should run 5E this way, god knows I didn’t, I’m only looking at what the rules actually allow, and in this case they allow for an overpowered combination.

    A GM is always free to say no, but it would have been better for the rules not to allow such a combo in the first place. Experienced GMs know not to allow this, but a newbie GM who isn’t clued into our conversation might not know any better.

    1. Thanks for replying to our comment!

      I would like to say that I understand your position on the matter of preparing spells, but the rules are really quite clear: you prepare spells for that class as though you were a single-class spellcaster. That means that if you are a 1st-level cleric, you can only prepare 1st-level cleric spells. Now, you can point to the general wording in the Spellcasting class feature perhaps giving you a free pass, but in doing so you would be neglecting the specific restrictions described in the Multiclass Spellcasting section. And, as is deliberately specified on page 7 of the Player’s Handbook, specific beats general.

      I’m sorry, but you are conclusively wrong that there is a RAW way to cast 9th-level cleric spells as a 1st-level cleric. If you want to be a GM who says that’s acceptable at your table, that’s your prerogative to suspend the rules. But, no, the rules do not allow for it; you are simply misreading them.

      Best!

      – the Archmage

    2. RAW, yes, a cleric as access to all of the spells on their list, but you still have to prepare what spells you have at the ready each day. (wisdom mod + cleric level, min of one). I am on DND beyond, so I dont have the page number.

  2. In your EK 5/AT 7/W2 example you should be a 6th level caster not 5th.

    The rules state, “one third your fighter or rogue levels”. The lack of the word ‘each’ heavily implies a third of your combined fighter and rogue levels. You divide after adding, otherwise you’re just doubling the rounding error when it’s not required.

    Thus 2 + (7 + 5)/3 = 2 + 12/3 = 6

    As for the other issue, it’s clear in the examples given in the multiclassing section of the PHB that spells known are determined by the individual level of each class. An example in the rules is the very definition of specific when it comes to the specific vs general rule.

    1. Thank you for your comment!

      Actually, 5th-level spellcaster is correct. Your math seems to have been jumbled.

      To clarify, a 5th-level Eldritch Knight counts as a 1st-level spellcaster (5 divided by 3, round down), and a 7th-level Arcane Trickster is a 2nd-level spellcaster (7 divided by 3, round down). Then you add your two wizard levels for 5. Or, to put it another way:

      1 (5/3) + 2 (7/3) + 2 = 5th-level spellcaster

      As to your point about EK and AT levels not stacking, I’m reasonably certain that this is not the intention of the rules, and it’s certainly not how I would run it at my table. Nonetheless, having found no Sage Advice that would confirm or refute either position, I have reached out to Mike Mearls and Jeremy Crawford on Twitter to clarify. It may be that you are correct. We shall see.

  3. Hey,

    In my campaign, I’m multiclassing an arcane archer fighter and horizon walker ranger (both from xanathar’s guide). How does my spells work then. I’m currently level 13 (8F/5R). Do I follow the multiclass chart or do I just follow the ranger’s chart for spell slots, since my arcane archer has no spells.

    1. Thanks for commenting!

      Because the arcane archer does not have the Spellcasting class feature, the process outlined above for determining your “spellcaster level” does not apply. You simply follow the ranger’s chart for spell slots.

      Best!
      – the Archmage

  4. So I am a Lv9 Rogue (arcane trickster) about to Multi-class into a level of Cleric for… reasons. (One word: Strahd).

    Anyway, I’ve been staring at the book for hours, but I’m still extremely confused. Now admittedly I’m probably overthinking this, but it worries me that I’m LOSING slots instead of gaining them?

    Performing the math, (9/3) +1 indicates that for multi-classing purposes, I’d be a Level 4 caster, right? Using the chart in the book, that seems to indicate that I get 4-1st level slots, and 3-2nd level slots. Yet, my Lv9 arcane trickster rogue has 6-1st level slots, 4-2nd level slots, and 2-3rd level slots.

    Basically I’m looking for confirmation that I get all the slots listed above instead of just the multi-class slots.

    As in: 6-1st level slots, 4-2nd level slots, and 2-3rd level slots for Rogue Spells and 4-1st level slots, and 3-2nd level slots for Cleric Spells. Is that correct? If not, it appears I’d be LOSING a significant amount of slots to multi-class… so… Can anyone help?

    1. Hi K8AN,

      Thanks for commenting!

      When you gain a second spellcasting class, you use the Multiclass Spellcaster: Spell Slots per Spell Level table on page 165 of the Player’s Handbook. You do not get those slots in addition to other spell slots you have.

      I believe that your confusion arises out of misreading the Arcane Trickster Spellcasting table. In fact, you currently have four 1st-level spell slots (not 6), two 2nd-level spells (not 4), and no 3rd-level spells. You know 6 spells in total (the number which you have mistaken for your number of 1st-level spell slots).

      When you correct for the misread, you will see that, when you take your next level in cleric, you will actually gain one additional 2nd-level spell slot (using the 4th-level line from the Multiclass Spellcaster table), rather than losing spell slots.

      Hopefully this clears things up for you.

      Best,
      – the Archmage

  5. Hi. Im a Sorcery Lv 5 and Warlock Lv 2.
    What is the highest spell slot i have now. The information on the web says i can pick 1 Lv4 spell. Can you help me out with info?

    1. Hi Josh,

      Combining Pact Magic and normal spellcasting can be tricky. Here’s what you have:

      You always know/prepare spells for a class as though that were your only class. Therefore, the highest level sorcerer spell you would know is 3rd level, and the highest level warlock spell you know would be 1st level.

      Because Pact Magic does not stack with normal spellcasting, you would not add your warlock levels to your sorcerer levels to determine spell slots. Therefore, you would have six 1st-level spell slots (including the two from Pact Magic), three 2nd-level spell slots, and two 3rd-level spell slots.

      I hope this helps!

      – the Archmage

      1. I well get and understand this better. BUT i do get it to a extend lol. I relly apreshe it that you message me back.

        1. Not a problem! We really appreciate the opportunity to answer your question.

          If you are still confused, we suggest that you keep track of your spellcasting classes on two separate pages, writing the spellcasting class and level you have in that class at the top of the page. When you go to figure out what spells you can have when you gain your next level in either of those classes, just simply set the other page aside and ignore it. You are simply a warlock, or you are simply a sorcerer.

          The only time the other class will matter at all is when you go to cast a spell, as the spell slots you get from Pact Magic are in addition to the ones you get from normal spellcasting. So if you know the warlock spell Hex, you can cast it using a sorcerer spell slot. Likewise, if you know the sorcerer spell feather fall, you could cast it using a warlock spell slot.

          Best,
          – the Archmage

    1. Hi Christopher,

      Thanks for your suggestion, and for the Sage Advice link! We’ll definitely look at making that clear at some point in the article.

      Best,
      – the Archmage

  6. hey I’ve recently made a 6th lvl bard 2nd lvl warlock and I’ve been wondering how cantrips work when multi-classing?

    1. Hi DMDennis,

      You know and prepare spells for each class as though you were only of that class (PHB 164). This means that your character would know three bard cantrips and two warlock cantrips.

      Best,
      – the Archmage

  7. So I’m playing a currently 7th level Evocation Wizard and I am planning on multiclassing her into a Warlock at 10th level. What I’m wondering is because I would be a 9th level Wizard and would have access to 5th level spell slots would I be able to get all of the spells in the expanded list? It only says “Spell Level” in each chart. It doesn’t specify Warlock spell slot.

    1. Hi Kat,

      Thank you for your question.

      It is important to remember that, as noted above, when learning or preparing spells that you always prepare them as though you were solely of that class (PHB 164). In other words, your wizard levels have no influence on what warlock spells you can learn, and vice versa.

      Therefore, a wizard 9/warlock 1 character would learn warlock spells as though they were a 1st-level character with a level in warlock, and would prepare wizard spells as though they were a 9th-level character with nine levels in wizard.

      Once the spells are learned/prepared, they can be cast using any spell slot. Because Pact Magic is separate from the Spellcasting class feature, this means that you actually get an extra 1st-level spell slot instead of getting a second 5th-level spell slot (see the Multiclass Spellcaster: Spell Slots per Spell Level table on PHB 165), as you would if you had instead multiclassed into, say, sorcerer.

      This means that you could cast any prepared 1st-level wizard spell five times (using four 1st-level wizard spell slots and the extra warlock spell slot), cast any of your two known warlock spells up to five times, or mix and match any of your 1st-level spells.

      Hopefully this helps.

      Best,
      – the Archmage

    2. Hi Kat,

      I was looking at your question again and I believe I may have misunderstood what you were asking, so I’ll try to answer it again.

      The warlock expanded spell list is tied to your Pact Magic feature. These spells are available for you to take “when you learn a warlock spell”. Therefore, you could not learn them as wizard spells in the same way that you could not learn a cleric spell as a wizard spell if you were a multiclass cleric/wizard.

      Remember that each class learns spells independently of your other classes, so in order to cast a 3rd-level warlock spell you have to be a 5th-level warlock, not simply a 5th-level character.

      Best,
      – the Archmage

  8. Hey, love the explanation on multiclassing spell slinging, but I have a slight plan problem here. I am playing as a Pact of the Chain Warlock (currently lv6 – Fiend type) atm, and I am investing in fighter to get better AC and weapon usage (I gots a magic martial weapon), and was wondering how would Eldritch knight work in conjunction with it? Would it give me new spell slots to work with? or give me something else? Same goes for the sorcerer class (if I can get that far).

    1. Hi Ian,

      Thanks for your comment!

      Spell slots stack across all classes, with the exception of warlock. This is because they don’t have the Spellcasting feature, they have the Pact Magic feature.

      A 6th-level warlock who gets up to 3rd level in fighter to become an Eldritch Knight would therefore have two 3rd-level spell slots for being a warlock in addition to the two 1st-level spell slots of an Eldritch Knight. If you then took a level in sorcerer, you would refer to the Multiclassing section in chapter 6, “Customization Options” in the Player’s Handbook, which would instruct you to take one third of your fighter levels and add them to your sorcerer levels to determine how many spell slots you have as a multiclass spellcaster (it comes out to being three 1st-level spell slots). These are determined independently of the warlock class because, again, the warlock doesn’t have Spellcasting.

      Therefore, a Warlock 6/Fighter (Eldritch Knight) 3/Sorcerer 1 would have three 1st-level spell slots and two 3rd-level spell slots. They could then cast any spell they know using any one of those slots, irrespective of what class allowed them to learn the spell. For example, if you have the warlock spell hex, you may prefer to cast it using one of the 1st-level spell slots you have from your spellcasting classes because you will rarely have to cast it with an 8-hour duration (which would be the only benefit of casting it at 3rd level). Alternatively, you may want to do a real number on enemies in a 15-foot cone by casting the sorcerer’s burning hands spell using one of the 3rd level slots you have for being a 6th-level warlock.

      Hopefully that answers your question!

      Best,
      – the Archmage

      1. Thank you for the reponse~! With you telling me this it allows me to get an idea of how I want to continue my build as a Warlock (chain). The problem that is now coming to mind is when I reach 3 for Fighter for Eldritch Knight, do I continue Warlock for more powerful spells and abilities? or continue EK for more Spells slots available? I know it a choice of my own preference, but this is my first character (I am new to all of this) and I don’t want it to be busted or broken, but I don’t want it to be a way too confusing.

        Also, does the known spells increase with the addition of Eldritch Knight? as in EK gets 2 more cantrips and 3 more spells. so it gets added on? I want to be sure before i jump way headlong into multiclassing this way.

        1. Hi Ian,

          I’m glad my explanation helped.

          In regards to the number of spells known, that is also determined solely by class. Levelling fighter to 3 won’t get you more warlock spell slots, nor vice versa. This also means that if you have two spellcasting classes with cantrips, you get cantrips from both classes.

          As for whether it’s better to go for higher-level spells or more low-level spells, that is entirely up to you. Every character in every campaign is different. I can only recommend that you go with what seems best.

          If you are interested in basic recommendations for different class combinations, you can check out our Multiclassing Like a Pro article, where we rated and offered suggestions for the different combinations.

          Best,
          – the Archmage

  9. Under Sorcerer (same text for Warlock as well):
    “Additionally, when you gain a level in this class, you can choose one of the sorcerer spells you know and replace it with another spell from the sorcerer
    spell list, which also must be of a level for which you have spell slots.”

    This part is confusing for me. If I have 9th level spell slots, can I not chose 9th level Sorcerer spells? They are so explicit everywhere else. A spell from the _sorcerer spells you know_ replace with one from the _sorcerer spell list_, but generically “of a level for which you have spell slots” not “the highest spell level you have according to the sorcerer table.”

    Obviously I can’t chose 9th level wizard spells or 9th level warlock spells. But if I’m Wizard 19/Sorcerer 1, I have 9th level spell slots and it would appear to me that I can choose 9th level sorcerer spells for my 2 known spells at level 1.

    What do you think?

    1. Hi James,

      Thanks for your question!

      I agree that they could be more clear, but they cover their bases at the beginning of the book, where they say: “If a specific rule contradicts a general rule, the specific rule wins” (PHB 7). Generally, sorcerers can learn spells based on their spell slots, but the multiclassing section contains the following guidance: “You determine what spells you know and can prepare for each class individually, as if you were a single-classed member of that class” (PHB 164). The specific restriction here, then, is to use only the spell slots you would have gained as a sorcerer. If you are a 2nd-level sorcerer, you only have access to 1st-level spell slots and thus if you re-train a sorcerer spell you have learned you must replace it with a 1st-level sorcerer spell.

      Hopefully this helps clarify things for you.

      Best,
      – the Archmage

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